The primary education level of the resource is defined according to UNESCO ISCED 2011 classification. According to this definition, primary education usually begins at age 5, 6, or 7, and has a typical duration of six years.
Programs at ISCED level 1 are normally designed to give pupils a sound basic education in reading, writing, and mathematics, along with an elementary understanding of other subjects such as history, geography, natural science, social sciences, art, and music.
Programs classified at ISCED level 1 may be referred to in many ways, for example, primary education, elementary education, or basic education (stage 1 or lower grades of an education system have one program that spans ISCED levels 1 and 2). For international comparability purposes, the term “primary education” is used to label ISCED level 1.
Ian Menter is a fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in the UK and was President of the British Educational Research Association, 2013 to 2015. He is Emeritus Professor of Teacher Education at the University of Oxford and was formerly the Director of Professional Programmes in the Department of Education at the university.
He previously worked at the University of Glasgow, the Univeristy of the West of Scotland, London Metropolitan University, the University of the West of England, and the Univeristy of Gloucestershire. Before that he was a primary school teacher in Bristol, England. He is now a visiting professor at Ulster and Bath Spa universities.
He was President of the Scottish Educational Research Association (SERA) from 2005 to 2007 and was a member of the steering group for the BERA–RSA Inquiry into Research and Teacher Education. He led the team at the University of Glasgow that carried out a literature review for the Review of Teacher Education in Scotland.
His research on teacher education and education policy has been widely published in journals and books.
Maria Teresa Tatto is a professor in the Division of Educational Leadership and Innovation at Arizona State University and the Southwest Borderlands Professor of Comparative Education at the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College. She is an honorary research fellow at the University of Oxford, a visiting professor at Bath University, and Asociada Titular, Consejo Mexicano de Investigacion Educativa.
Dr. Tatto’s work analyzes the influence of public policy on education and particularly on curriculum and teaching, and on teacher education in comparative perspective. She has served as the principal investigator for the Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDSM), and for the First-Five-Years of Mathematics Teaching Study (FIRSTMATH), both funded by the US National Science Foundation and designed to explore the connections between mathematics preservice preparation and what is learned on-the-job during the first years of teaching.
Dr. Tatto has served as Editor of the journal Educational and Policy Analysis Archives, as Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Teacher Education, and as a guest editor for the Oxford Review of Education. She has edited, coedited, and authored several books. From 2008 to 2012 she was elected to function in an executive leadership capacity for the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) including serving as President in 2010.